Grape seed extract

Grape seed extracts are industrial derivatives from whole grape seeds. Typically, the commercial opportunity of extracting grape seed constituents has been for chemicals known as polyphenols, including oligomeric proanthocyanidins recognized as antioxidants.

Potential anti-disease effects

Human case reports and results from laboratory and animal studies show that grape seed extract may be useful to treat heart diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.[1] By limiting lipid oxidation, phenolics in grape seeds may reduce risk of heart disease, such as by inhibiting platelet aggregation and reducing inflammation.[2] While such studies are promising, more research including long-term studies in humans is needed to confirm initial findings.

A polyphenol contained in grape seeds is resveratrol which may interfere with cancer cell growth and proliferation, as well as induce apoptosis, among a variety of potential chemopreventive effects.[3][4] 

Grape seed components may also be active against HIV by inhibiting virus expression and replication.[5]

Preliminary research shows that grape seed extract may have other possible anti-disease properties, such as in laboratory models of
wound healing¡ªgrape seed proanthocyanidins induced vascular endothelial growth factor and accelerated healing of injured skin in mice.[6]
tooth decay --seed phenolics may inhibit oral sugar metabolism and retard growth of certain bacteria causing dental caries.[7]
osteoporosis -- grape seed extracts enhanced bone density and strength in experimental animals.[8]
skin cancer -- grape seed proanthocyanidins decreased tumor numbers and reduced the malignancy of papillomas.[9]
ultraviolet damage to skin¡ªdietary proanthocyanidins may protect against carcinogenesis and provide supplementation for sunscreen protection.[10]
Currently, there are four clinical trials underway to assess the effect of grape seed extracts on human breast cancer, blood estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, and coronary artery disease.[11]
References
1 ^ Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, et al. (Feb-Mar 2003). "Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract". Mutat Res. 523-524: 87¨C97. PMID 12628506. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S002751070200324X.
2 ^ Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE (Oct 2005). "Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates". J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 46 (4): 445¨C51. doi:10.1097/01.fjc.0000176727.67066.1c. PMID 16160595. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0160-2446&volume=46&issue=4&spage=445.
3 ^ Kundu JK, Surh YJ (Oct 2008). "Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of resveratrol: mechanistic perspectives". Cancer Lett. 269 (2): 243¨C61. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.057. PMID 18550275.
4 ^ BBC news - December 2008 - Grape extract kills cancer cells
5 ^ Nair MP, Kandaswami C, Mahajan S, et al. (2002). "Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV-1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells". Biol Res. 35 (3-4): 421¨C31. PMID 12462994.
6 ^ Khanna S, Venojarvi M, Roy S, et al. (Oct 2002). "Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins". Free Radic Biol Med. 33 (8): 1089¨C96. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00999-1. PMID 12374620. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891584902009991.
7 ^ Smullen J, Koutsou GA, Foster HA, Zumb¨¦ A, Storey DM (2007). "The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans". Caries Res. 41 (5): 342¨C9. doi:10.1159/000104791. PMID 17713333.
8 ^ Yahara N, Tofani I, Maki K, Kojima K, Kojima Y, Kimura M (Jun 2005). "Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats". J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 5 (2): 162¨C9. PMID 15951633. http://www.ismni.org/jmni/pdf/20/10YAHARA.pdf.
9 ^ Katiyar SK (Jun 2008). "Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system". Mol Nutr Food Res. 52 Suppl 1: S71¨C6. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700198. PMID 18384090.
10 ^ Baliga MS, Katiyar SK (Feb 2006). "Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals". Photochem Photobiol Sci. 5 (2): 243¨C53. doi:10.1039/b505311k. PMID 16465310.
11 ^ Search results for grape seed extracts, ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the US National Institutes of Health